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Kurulus Osman English

Watch Kurulus Osman Episode 85 English Subtitles

Watch Kurulus Osman Episode 85 English Subtitles

Watch Kurulus Osman


1280-1566The rise of the Ottoman dynasty to rule much of Europe and Asia is one of the most remarkable stories in history. In the thirteenth century, the Ottomans ruled only one of a number of Turkoman principalities that ringed the decadent Byzantine state in western Anatolia. Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

Within two centuries they had established an empire that encompassed not only the former Byzantine lands of Southeastern Europe and Anatolia but also Hungary and the Arab world, and that empire was to endure into modern times. Who were the Ottomans? Where did they come from? Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

How did they establish their rule? And what was the result for both them and the people whom they came to dominate ?1The Turks in History Before examining the rise of the Ottoman Empire we must try to find out who the Ottomans were and how they came to western Anatolia in the first place. Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

Turkish Origins The Ottomans descended from the mass of nomads who roamed in the area of the Altai Mountains, east of the Eurasian steppes and south of the Yenisei River and Lake Baikal in lands that today are part of Outer Mongolia. These Altaic nomads had a primitive, mobile civilization based on tribal organization, customs, and social sanctions without the formal organs of government and laws characteristic of more advanced societies. Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

Their livelihood came mainly from raising flocks and taking what they could from their weaker neighbors. Temporary leadership was entrusted to hand, but the scope of their authority was limited to searching for pastures and to military activities and did not extend to relations among individuals within the tribes or among the tribes themselves. Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

Their Shamanistic beliefs involved worship of the elements of nature through a series of totems and spirits considered to have special powers that could affect man for both good and evil. Man himself was helpless in the face of their power but could secure protection through the intercession of shamans, priests with special power to control and use the spirits. The empire had no real capital, boundaries, or laws beyond the decrees of the Gokturk chiefs. The rulers had no permanent residence – only summer and winter quarters where they camped while searching for grazing lands for their flocks. Watch Kurulus Osman Watch now

The people continued to practice the rites of Shamanism as they had done in the past. Their culture advanced just beyond the use of stone clubs and arrows to a point where they began to tip their weapons with metal. Watch Kurulus Osman

The significance of this empire was its manifestation of the first evidence of some kind of contact between the nomads and the settled civilizations to the south, namely, the outlines of state organization and the idea of the dynasty. Soon after its inception, the Gokturk Empire was divided into two parts, the eastern and western empires, both of which accepted the nominal suzerainty of the rulers of northern China in the seventh century. In 682 the western group, centered in the theSemirechye, regained its independence and preserved it until 744, leaving the earliest inscriptions in the Turkish language to have survived into modern times, found on the Orhon and Yenisei rivers in Central Asia. Watch Kurulus Osman

It traded actively with its civilized neighbors and for a time entered a military alliance with Byzantium against the Sassanids of Iran. For three centuries after the final collapse of the western Gokturk empire in the mid-eighth century, the areas of its dominions in Transoxania have partitioned among its constituent tribes and other newly arrived Altaic nomads including the Oguz inTransoxania and the Karluks, who dominated the area from the Jaxartes into the north-east and were the immediate neighbors of the Arabs. Watch Kurulus Osman

The Uygurs lived on the upper basin of the Yenisei from about 745 to 840, after which they were displaced by the Kirgiz, while the Kipchaks took over the area from the Irish down to the Jaxartesfrom the late ninth to the twelfth centuries. None of these ever achieved the extent or permanency of the Gokturk Empire, but all evidenced the results of contact with the advanced Islamic civilization to the south. Watch Kurulus Osman

Thus for three centuries, two cultures came into contact along the Oxus river; the traditional Middle Eastern settled civilization embodied in the Muslim empires of Iran and Iraq and the nomadic civilization of the theGoktiirks and their successors. Watch Kurulus Osman

What were the principal means of contact, and what were the results? The first and most obvious means was military conflict as the nomads continued their efforts to cross south of the Oxus and raid the settled areas and they Muslimsdeveloped an active defense policy by penetrating Transoxania and establishing forts and walls maintained by a military guard system. Watch Kurulus Osman

Along this frontier, both sides developed colonies of permanent guards who on the Muslim side were called ghazis, fighters for the faith against the infidels. On both sides of the frontier, these groups came to live the same kind of borderline existence, adopting each other’s weapons, tactics, and ways of life and gradually forming a common military frontier society, more similar to each other than to the societies from which they came and which they defended.

The second means of contact was provided by trade and commerce. The Gokturk Empire and its successors lay across international caravan routes between the old civilized centers of Europe and the East. While the initial nomadic conquests disrupted these routes, the Goktiirks and their successors later found that they could benefit more by allowing and even encouraging the passage of caravans through their territory, collecting from them in return the clothing, utensils, and weapons developed in the civilized countries.

This, in turn, pushed the Goktiirks closer to the settled civilization of their neighbors. The third means of contact and transmission was that provided by the missionary

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