Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman Episode 87 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Onubad Media It is far easier to find contemporary evidence about Orhan, the son, than about Osman, the father. Two of Orhan ’ s inscriptions survive, and copies of three of his trust deeds; he appears by name in Mongol accounting records; u_ and he is mentioned in Persian and Arabic sources. Ibn Battuta claimed to have met Orhan, “ the greatest of the kings of the Turkmens and the richest in wealth, lands and military forces. Watch Now
” Orhan “ fought with the infidels continually,” and moved regularly between his more than one hundred castles, checking that they were in good repair, never staying more than a month in any one place.^ Ibn Battuta ’ s impression of Orhan as engaged in incessant combat is emphatically supported by Greek writers who left accounts. He and his men took Bursa (Bursa) in 1326 after a long siege, and by the next year he was minting coins there, as a surviving silver piece shows.
Nicaea ( İ znik) fell to Orhan ’ s forces in 1331 and Nicomedia ( İ znikmid, İ zmit) in 1337. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Conquest of these three major Greek cities, Bursa, Nicaea, and Nicomedia, made Orhan the master of the whole region of Bithynia. Orhan was only one of many Turkish rulers Ibn Battuta met in his tour of Asia Minor. Turkmen clans fleeing the Mongol invasions supplied the manpower for many an ambitious lord who plundered the river valleys and coasts of the Black Sea, Marmara and Aegean, beginning in the 1290s. Several of them besides Orhan used their armed bands to create rudimentary administrative structures. Watch Now
By 1340 they controlled most of the overland routes and caravan towns of the river valleys and, on the coasts, joined the contest for the ports and shipping lanes between Byzantium and the Italian maritime states. The Turkish lords of these borderlands and their followers seemed coarse and unruly not just to the Greeks but also to the urbane Muslim writers of “ Rum, ” or Rome, the name given to the upland plateau because it used to be within the Roman Empire. Islamic culture had prevailed there for more than two hundred years under the rule of the Seljuk dynasty, 13 which had governed a cultured, Persian-influenced kingdom centered at Konya. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Onubad Media
The newcomers were semi-nomads who proudly spoke southwestern (i.e. Oghuz; see figure 1.3) Turkic languages. Their lifestyle was based on raiding as well as stock breeding and marketing the products of their herds.^ Their holy men and dervishes were eager to carry Islam into new lands. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Vassals of the Mongol rulers of Iran (the Ilkhanids), their appearance was linked to events of the previous century, beyond the horizons of their own memories, when commercial and political relations throughout Southwestern Eurasia had been dramatically disrupted by the Mongol advance. Watch Now
Violence, Disease, and Calamity Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle
The Mongol destruction of Khwarazm in 1219 had set in motion a forced migration of central Eurasian peoples that affected all the societies west of the Caspian Sea. Among the refugees and migrants were thousands of Turkmens with their families and herds. Their tribal societies were highly mobile and their inherent military potential renowned. The biographies of two great saints, Rumi (a.k.a. Mevlana Jalal al-Din), and Haji Bekahs, are both connected with the Mongol violence – the climate change and human misery that lay behind it, and the irruption of millenarian spiritual fervor that ran ahead of it.
Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle By 1260 political fallout from the Mongol incursions had produced three powerful kingdoms in Southwestern Eurasia. Two were Mongol – the Golden Horde in the lower Volga valley and the steppe north of the Black Sea; and the Ilkhanids in Iran, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus, with a capital at Tabriz. The third was the Mamluk Sultanate, founded not by Mongols but by Kipchak Turkish slave officers who overthrew their Ayyubid masters and seized power in Cairo in 1250. Watch Now
The Mamluks ruled Egypt, Arabia, and coastal Syria. Between and around and among these three major kingdoms, from the Danube River to the upper Euphrates and Tigris, dozens of Slavic, Latin, Greek, Armenian, and Turkish nobles and lords, their names long forgotten, engaged in intense and often violent competition for control of the endpoints of the great Eurasian trade routes. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Onubad Media
These lords were called “ emirs ” in Turkish, whence the term “ emirates” for their petty kingdoms. Among the many Turkish emirs were Osman and Orhan, but the strongest position was held by the Greek noble dynasty of Michael VIII Palaeologus, regent of the Greek Kingdom of Nicaea, who recaptured Constantinople from the Latin crusaders in 1261.
The Byzantine Civil War (Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle)
The local circumstances in which the small Turkish emirate of Orhan first became a significant factor in this larger world took the form of a dynastic crisis in Byzantium. This crisis cloaked larger issues both within the Orthodox faith tradition and international politics. In the years after the restoration of Greek rule in Constantinople Michael VIII pursued long-term Byzantine security, both through a structure of alliances, with the Kingdom of Hungary, and with the Turks and Mongols of the northern Black Sea steppe, and through union of the Orthodox Church with Rome.
To large numbers of the Orthodox, clergy and laity alike, marital union with neighboring dynasties was just so much politics, whether it was with the daughter of the King of Hungary or the daughter of the Tatar Khan. Ecclesiastical union with Rome, however – finalized at the Council of Lyons in 1274 – was repulsive, and Michael’ s successor Andronicus II (1282 – 1328) ignored it. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle
Politics did not save Byzantium in the end, but pointed the Church towards the route of its trials and ultimate transfiguration. Andronicus II presided over the paradoxical loss of Byzantine sovereignty and spread of Orthodox revival in the Slavic lands. The Orthodox revival was visible especially in the mystical Hesychast movement, bubbling up from monastic communities. The home of Hesychasm was Mount Athos, where numerous monasteries were located on a peninsula in the Aegean.
Drawn by Jason Van Horn and Caitlin Strikwerda. The conflict broke into open civil war when the reigning emperor died in 1341, leaving 9-year-old John V as heir. The court divided into two factions. On one side, in support of the boy, were his mother the widowed Empress Anne of Savoy, the Greek patriarch, and the grand admiral. They advocated for unification with Rome as a means of strengthening the empire with military assistance, envisioning a Byzantium reconstructed on the model of the Latin maritime merchant states. In this they had the support of many Greek townsmen. Watch Now
Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle 15 On the other side, opposition to the empress and her party was led by the Grand Domestic John Cantacuzenus, a powerful general and military advisor at court. Cantacuzenus had the backing of most of his fellow landed aristocrats in Thrace, as well as Orthodox Christians from all walks of life who opposed union with Rome. Crucially, Cantacuzenus also had the ndorsement of the monk Gregory Palamas, leader of the Hesychasts. Sympathy to Hesychasm formed the spiritual dimension of the ynastic conflict. As a movement of personal renewal, Hesychasm focused on inward prayer, using the “ prayer of the heart ” as a meditative exercise. Watch Now
ass movement. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Onubad Media
Critics attacked it as anti-intellectual,and ridiculed its discipline of yogic-like breath control, but the preaching and writing of Gregory Palamas gave the movement firm theological grounding. Palamas analyzed the experience of the believer in contemplative prayer as an encounter with the energies of God in the form of light, the same light that shone around Christ on the Mount of Transfiguration.
Theological sparring grew sharp over Palamas ’ s distinction between the energies of God and the essence of God, which was inaccessible and unknowable. For Palamas, the point was that theology by itself is inadequate to produce true knowledge of God – the mysteries of God are beyond rational description. The only hope for salvation was to have a mind transformed by the true light of God ’ s grace. Watch Now
To many Greek aristocrats bothered by the growing influence of commercialized Italian values, Hesychast spirituality expressed an authentic Greek Christian identity.^ Although there were exceptions, Hesychasts like Palamas tended to be strong supporters of Cantacuzenus and viscerally opposed to union with Rome. 17 While Cantacuzenus was absent in Thrace in the fall of 1341, the patriarch and the empress staged a coup. They seized Cantacuzenus ’ s property and imprisoned his allies, including Gregory Palamas. Cantacuzenus countered, declaring himself and the boy John V co-emperors, and appointing Palamas Archbishop of Salonika.
kurulus Osman Episode 87 But a regime of “ Zealots ” favorable to the empress took over Salonika and prevented Palamas from assuming his post, and Hesychasm was for the moment officially condemned. Palamas went to prison, and Cantacuzenus fled to Prishtina, where he spent nearly a year under the cynical protection of the Slavic King Stefan Dushan. As soon as Cantacuzenus departed Dushan switched sides, betrothed his son to the boy emperor ’ s sister, 18 and plundered all of Macedonia except for Salonika. Both Byzantine factions sought allies among nobles and neighbors, not just Slavs but also the Italian city states, their Aegean colonies, and the numerous Turkish emirs of the Aegean and Black Sea coasts. Watch Now
The empress approached Orhan, but after getting a cool response, negotiated the backing of Orhan ’ s neighbor to the south instead. Cantacuzenus was rebuffed by the Turkish Emir of the Troad,j^ but won the support of the Emir of Ayd ı n, the most powerful of the Aegean Turkish emirates. Ayd ı n sent both a fleet and troops to Thrace, and ravaged the Italian commercial bases in the Aegean islands. In October 1344, however, the combined forces of the Pope, Venice, the King of Cyprus, and the Knights Hospitaller captured the port and citadel at Smyrna, a defeat from which Ayd 1 n never fully recovered. Cantacuzenus then turned to Orhan. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle Free | Onubad Media
They sealed what became a lasting alliance by Orhan ’ s marriage to Cantacuzenus ’ s second daughter, Theodora. 20 Two thousand Turkish troops led by Orhan ’ s sons joined Cantacuzenus ’ s son Matthew in a joint campaign to evict Stefan Dushan and plunder Thrace. The palace group around the empress asked for a truce, and Cantacuzenus entered Constantinople victorious in 1347. Watch Now
He had himself crowned by the patriarch and gave his third daughter Helena in marriage to the young John V, who became his co-regent as planned. In a show of support Orhan feasted and hunted with Cantacuzenus across the Bosphorus from Constantinople^ After his coronationCantacuzenus presided at a Church council where Hesychasm was duly declared to be orthodox. A Hesychast patriarch was appointed, and Gregory Palamas finally took up residence as Archbishop of Salonika.