Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle The Black Death and the Marmara Earthquake Less than six months after the feast on the Bosphorus the Black Death reached Constantinople. The pestilence struck the Aegean basin in two separate waves within a single generation, first in 1348 and again in 1361. Crossing Eurasia by way of the overland trade routes, it devastated the Golden Horde, then spread from the Black Sea ports on the Crimean Peninsula to the Aegean and Mediterranean and across the Caucasus to Mongol Tabriz. From Tabriz the epidemic hit Mosul and Baghdad in 1348. Watch All
An Armenian source described it in the upper Euphrates region. The following year it raged up and down the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts and on Cyprus. Ibn Battuta lost his mother to the disease. He witnessed the prayers, fasting, and processions undertaken in response to the epidemic in Damascus in the summer of 1348. Watch All Episode
The entire population of the city joined in, ” he wrote. The Jews went out with their book of the Law and the Christians with their Gospel, their women and children with them; the whole concourse of them in tears and humble supplications, imploring the favour of God through His Books and His Prophets. They made their way to the Mosque of the Footprints and remained there in supplication and invocation until near midday, then returned to the city and held the
Friday service. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
22 In Constantinople, “ The despair was most frightful,” wrote Cantacuzenus. He and his wife saw their youngest son carried dawiseaays,e .a ”n dF o“r tChaen gtarceuazte wnuesi gthhet eopfi ddeemprice swsaios na wtriaasl fardomde Gd otod that drove people to acts of virtue. “ Many distributed their belongings to the poor even before the disease had fallen upon them. If they saw people afflicted at any time, not one of them was so unfeeling that he did not show regret for sins he had
committed …” Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle Free | Onubad Media
23 When Cantacuzenus had his surviving son Matthew crowned emperor in 1352, the civil war in Constantinople broke out anew. Stefan Dushan made himself” Emperor of the Serbs and Romans ” at Skopje on Easter Sunday and prepared for war.
Once again Cantacuzenus reached out to the Turks. As part of the agreement, troops commanded by Orhan ’ s son Süleyman
occupied the fortress of Tzympe, on the Gallipoli peninsula. Conditions worsened as runaway inflation swept Constantinople.
A desperate palace sought the mediation of Gregory Palamas.
Sailing for Constantinople, Palamas and his suite of monks entered the Dardanelles in March 1354 during a late winter storm. Their boat barely made landing at Gallipoli. There they entered a scene of utter misery. The previous Saturday evening, on the eve of the Feast of Orthodoxy (the first Sunday of Lent), an earthquake had leveled the entire area. The earthquake was strongly felt in Constantinople, a hundred miles to the east.
Gallipoli was completely destroyed, including the walls, and filled with refugees from the surrounding towns and
villages. The earthquake made “ not only buildings and possessions but also body and souls … a spoil for dogs and all manners of vultures … both human and non-human. ” Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
25. Cantacuzenus added that many died in the freezing cold, the snow, and the rain, “ especially women and newborn babies.
Immediately after the earthquake, Palamas learned, Orhan ’ s son Süleyman had sailed across the Dardanelles to occupy Gallipoli. Turkish troops now boarded Palamas ’ s boat, seizing the archbishop and his traveling companions. Image courtesy of Saint Isaac of Syria Skete.
By the time Palamas was released from captivity nearly a year later everything had changed. Süleyman had rebuilt Gallipoli, stronger than it was before. Turkish knights had defeated Stefan Dushan, as Cantacuzenus had hoped, but they also raided throughout Thrace and laid siege to Constantinople. His political situation unraveling, Cantacuzenus was forced from the throne. The Turks and Europe Observers medieval and modern have seen the Ottoman capture of Gallipoli in 1354 as a symbolic beginning point for the Turkish expansion into Europe. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
The Byzantine Greek writer Critobulus, for example, put the crossing of the Hellespont ( Dardanelles) in terms that evoked Herodotus ’ s famous description of Xerxes ’ s invasion of Greece, and even called Orhan ’ s troops “ the Persians. But the Ottomans were not the first Turks to cross the Straits, and anyway they lost Gallipoli in 1366 (and regained it again in 1373). For at least three centuries people of the central Eurasian steppe had migrated into the whole region.
Turks probably first entered Asia Minor from Europe, rather than the other way around. By 1200 Turks were a permanent feature of society in the Slavic kingdoms and Hungary too. In none of this were the Straits between the Black Sea and the Aegean much of a dividing line. Contemporary observers saw the importance of the Ottoman occupation of Tzympe and Gallipolidifferently.lt gave Ottoman armies a forward base on the other side of the Straits from Bithynia,
both to plunder Thrace and to threaten Constantinople from the landward side – no small matter for the Ottomans, who at the time had only a meager navy. Murad Hüdavendigâr and the Conquest of Thrace Though the civil war in Byzantium ended, peace did not soon return because Stefan Dushan ’ s fragile Slavic kingdom dissolved at his death amid conflicts among his heirs and vassals. While Turkish raiding parties no doubt played some role in and took advantage of the resulting lawlessness in Thrace, it was also the Turkish conquest that brought the return of stability and public security after decades of destructive violence. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
The Ottoman conquest of Thrace was completed not by Süleyman, who died in a hunting accident, but by another of Orhan ’ s sons, Murad. Murad succeeded Orhan after a struggle with his youngest brother Halil, whose mother was Theodora, Cantacuzenus ’ s daughter. Greek pirates kidnapped Halil and held him at Constantinople. A marriage was arranged between Halil and the daughter of Emperor John V as a way of strengthening Byzantine bonds with the potential Ottoman heir, 26 but the plans came to nothing when Murad defeated Halil. The war between the two Ottoman brothers merged into a general conquest of the Turkish emirates throughout coastal Asia Minor and on the western rim of the plateau.
Many Turkish emirs capitulated, as did the Christian city state of Philadelphia. West of the straits, Murad ’ s conquest of Edrene (Adrianople, or Edirne), at the confluence of the Tunca and Maritsa Rivers, doomed many Slavic lords. The final blow was a Turkish victory at the Maritsa in September 1371. This left no serious obstacle to Ottoman control in Thrace and Macedonia, as far as the southern slopes of the Balkan Mountains. These conquests, carried out sometimes by Murad himself and sometimes by Murad ’ s vassals, powerful Turkish ommanders in their own right, 27 spread Turkish influence westward towards the Adriatic. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
Murad widened Ottoman authority both by conquest and diplomacy.
He was allied by marriage to the Slavic lord of Tarnovo and to the Turkish emirs of Kastamonu and Sinop. He deftly used his son Bayezid ’ s wedding to display his power to his invited Turkish vassals. 28 And from his one-fifth share of campaign plunder Murad created a small army of elite slaves, Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle a highly trained infantry loyal to him personally.
Although Orhan had had a small infantry, Murad ’ s permanent, salaried “ new troop ” ( yeni çeri, whence janissary) must have been created as a counter to his Turkish vassals, and to the troublesome Turkmen raiders, the very ones who had brought Osman and Orhan their initial success. 29 Documents of the next century reflect the Ottoman ruler ’ s elevated status.
Murad, and his son and successor Bayezid, were no longer called emir but Sultan and Hüdavendigâr, “ Great Lord. ” A second series of campaigns in the 1380s brought Turkish rule to western Thrace. Several Macedonian fortified towns fell, and in 1387 Salonika fell after a four-year siege. Murad ’ s armies raided into the southern Slavic lands and near the Adriatic coast.
There were some Slavic successes. Lazar, the lord of Krushevac, briefly regained Nish and the passes guarding the route to Sofia at the end of 1387. The next year the Turks and their Albanian allies were beaten near Dubrovnik, and Tarnovo too defied Murad. Murad crossed the Balkan Mountains, forced the submission of Tarnovo, Silistre, and Varna on the Black Sea, all the forts up to the Danube, and raided into Wallachia. Finally, Murad met combined Slavic forces under Lazar on 1 August 1389 on the plain of Kosovo. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
The outcome of the Battle of Kosovo was somewhat ambiguous. Both King Lazar and Sultan Murad died, and Ottoman dominance of all the south Slavic lands had already been assured at the more definitive battle on the Maritsa
eighteen years earlier. Yet among the South Slavs the legend of the Kosovo defeat grew into a medieval folkloric cycle and later fed the modern myth of the resurrected Serbian nation. 30 In Turkish accounts, on the other hand, the climax of the story was the treacherous murder of Murad.
A Christian knight stabbed Murad to death with a dagger tucked inside his cloak after the battle. He had either hid among the corpses or, in some versions, was brought to the sultan ’ s tent as a captive. Both Turkish and Slavic writers knew each others ’ stories. Later Slavic chroniclers decided that the assassin was pretending to desert to the Turks, a story they picked up from the Turkish historians, while the Turkish historian Ne ş ri incorporated both the assassin ’ s name and his vow to kill the sultan, made at Lazar ’ s last supper, from the Slavic sources.
31 Another sinister detail, the assassin ’ s feigned conversion to Islam, appears a century after Ne ş ri in the Anthology of the Sultans’ Correspondence. Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle 32 This work was authored by Ahmed Feridun, an Ottoman statesman whose origins are unknown, but since he rose to prominence as the secretary of the famed Slavic Ottoman Grand Vezir Mehmed Sokollu, it would not be surprising if he too were a South Slav convert. Many of the “ official documents ” Feridun collected in his Aapnptheaorlso giny aw leertet earc ptuuarlplyo rftainkegs t,o i nbcel ufdroinmg Bthaey Kezoisdo,v Mo ustroardy .
Ist son and successor, describing how he came to the throne. 33 In any event, Murad was carried back from Kosovo where he had fallen and buried in a new mosque in the Bursa citadel, the Martyr ’ s Mosque. Bayezid succeeded his father Murad unchallenged, probably because he ordered the execution of his one brother on the battlefield at Kosovo.
A New Society
Out of the wars, disasters, disease, and migrations of this remarkable century there began to emerge in these borderlands a new society. Its several communities living side-by-side Greeks and Turks, Slavs and Latins – did not always understand or like one another. Yet, as in the legends of Kosovo, Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle their ignorance of one another and their sometimes shocking malice towards one another could not prevent an inevitable sharing of ways and means, an interlocking of identities, if often unacknowledged and even unconscious, created from calamity within a generation. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
It is not inaccurate to describe the communities as Christian and Muslim, but at the blurred boundaries between the two a borderland opened in which both Christian and Muslim knights were among the plundering armies, both Christians and Muslims faced the danger of enslavement, Christians and Muslims alike fell victim to disease, and Christians and Muslims fell in love with each other, shared intimacy, and were intermarried. Cantacuzenus chided his Greek rivals in Constantinople for their armies full of “ half-breeds, ” mixobarbaroi, and at the end of the century Tamerlane said the very same thing about the Ottomans. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
35 The two most famous contemporary observers of these linked societies, Ibn Battuta and Palamas, one a Muslim and the other Christian, each felt himself an outsider in coastal Asia Minor. Ibn Battuta spent the greater part of a lifetime travelling from end to end of the Islamic world, enjoying the company of like-minded Muslim scholars, but he faced surprising barriers in coastal Asia Minor because he did not know Turkish.
And when Archbishop Palamas came among Greek Christians in Asia Minor, who might be considered his own people, he observed with some wistfulness – but also some admiration – “ the Christians and the Turks mixing with each other, going about their lives, leading and being led by each other …”
36 It is not easy to draw a full demographic picture of this emerging society. It is not possible to know, for example, the total numbers of the population of the region at the time of the Turkish conquest or the size of the various ethnic and religious groups making up the whole. Kurulus Osman 88 English Subtitle It is not possible to know the numbers of invaders and immigrants; how many residents fled the calamities, temporarily or permanently, Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
to the islands of the Aegean, to Constantinople, or to the Slavic lands; how many died; how many were sold into slavery; how many remained in their homes; or how many returned to them once the violence receded. Most of the population in the lands ruled by the Ottoman emirs in the beginning was Orthodox Christian. It is no simple matter to assess the condition of these.
large numbers of Christians living under Muslim rule, ” as Ibn Battuta wrote. The Orthodox Church, its ecclesiastical structure decimated first by the Slavic invasions and then by the Turkish invasions, faced enormous difficulties^ The Church organization experienced significant material losses and impoverishment because of the attacks of the Turks, the flight of congregations and their leaders, the capture and enslavement of at least some of the population, the abandonment and confiscation of properties, and the toll of epidemic disease. Discipline, morality, and doctrinal purity all suffered.
Yet excavations at Sardis, a town on the well-worn Hermus (Gediz) river route between the coast of Asia Minor and the interior, show little disruption in settlement patterns, but rather strong evidence of continuity, between the Byzantine and early Turkish periods, for instance in production and use of glazed ceramic ware,
Although Archbishop Palamas found Nicaea largely deserted during his enforced residence there, its commerce being diverted to Bursa, congregational life continued in spite of hardships. In Biga too, “ They took us to the church of Christ, which even now exists through his power, praising him freely.” Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle Free | Onubad Media
And Palamas met Christians in high places, including Orhan ’ s personal doctor, a Greek physician named Taronites.40 Another problem for the Church was conversion to Islam. Two patriarchal letters addressed to the Christians of Nicaea in 1338 – 40 invited converts to return with forgiveness. Allowing that some might have become Muslims under duress, the letters promised that once the pressure was removed, those who wanted to return to the Church would find acceptance. Yet the letters repeatedly condemned converts for failing to maintain their Christian faith.
They treated it as a sin, requiring repentance and forgiveness – implicitly conceding that the conversions were not, in fact, coerced. 41 Not surprisingly, among the factors contributing to conversion was intermarriage. Royal models of Christian Muslim intermarriage, done for dynastic political reasons, were ready at hand should they be desired, but it was not merely a practice of the nobility. It was the children of these probably hundreds of unions who were the mixobarbaroi spoken of by Cantacuzenus. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle
42^ All of Sultan Orhan ’ s wives were Greek women – besides Theodora (Cantacuzenus ’ s daughter), Orhan had already married Nilüfer, the daughter of the Byzantine governor of Yarhisar. Kurulus Osman Episode 88 English Subtitle Free | Onubad Media
43 Theodora remained Christian, Nilüfer became a Muslim.44_ But this was nothing new. The Byzantine emperors had been intermarried with the Seljuk Turks for two hundred years. 4^ Dozens of princesses from the royal families of Christian Constantinople, Trebizond, and Serbia were married to Mongol and Turkish rulers. 4^ Orhan ’ s successors, Murad and Bayezid, married both Muslim and Christian women.
Murad was married to daughters of the Christian lord of Tarnovo and the Muslim lords of Kastamonu and Sinop.
Murad ’ s son Bayezid married the daughter of the Duchess of Salona who was a Roman Catholic, the sister of Serbian lord Stefan Lazarevic who was Orthodox, and the daughter of the Prince of Germiyan who was a Muslim.