Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 17 With English Subtitle
Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk CONCLUSION:
RESEARCH ON THE SELJUKS OF ANATOLIA: SOME
COMMENTS ON THE STATE OF THE ART
Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk
Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk This volume, The Seljuks of Anatolia, represents a benchmark in the study of the Seljuks of Anatolia. It arose from the first workshop devoted to the history of this subject and, to my knowledge, consists of the first collection of scholarly articles devoted to a specific theme within this field. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
Furthermore, the sophistication of the articles, covering many aspects of the main theme, and the fact that they were contributed by scholars from many countries is striking evidence that the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia has truly attracted broad interest and has become recognized as a distinct object of research, in many disciplines, within Islamic or Middle Eastern studies in general. This is a far cry from the first attempt at a scholarly account of the Seljuks of Anatolia, M.Th. Houtsma’s article, ‘Over de geschiedenis der Seldjuken van Klein Azi ë’ ,1 in Dutch (!) published in 1893. It was only 20 pages long. This subject was not properly taken up again until M.F. Kö p rülü published ‘Selç u killer zamanında Anadoluda Türk medeniyyeti’ in Ottoman Turkish in 1916. 2 Clearly marginalized, this field was not opened to a wide audience until the appearance of Claude Cahen’s Pre-Ottoman Turkey in 1968.
In an important sense, the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia is a relatively new subject. As a ‘new’ subject, many basic questions about it remain unanswered. Scholars now know the political history of the Seljuks in some detail, but their religious, economic, and social history, in particular, is largely unexplored – hence the rationale for the present volume. Indeed, it is enough to describe Seljuk Anatolia ‘as a problem’ in the German sense to provoke intriguing questions, for it was like no other part of the contemporary Muslim world. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
It seemed to be full of anomalies. Seljuk Anatolia was regarded by contemporary Muslim sources, both within and without the region, as part of Da 3 r al-Isl a 3 m, the Abode of Islam. However, throughout the Seljuk period, the majority of the population was Christian. To what extent was the Seljuk elite of Turkish nomadic origins, thus constituting an alien element of rulership over the population? Indeed, the ethnic composition of this minority Muslim ruling group remains unclear. Moreover, the degree of the Islamisation of the Turkish nomads is problematic. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
They were probably not far removed from shamanism. For the population as a whole, the most important language was Greek. As Rustam Shukurov has pointed out in his chapter, even many of the Seljuk rulers were the product of mixed marriages and spoke Greek. Persian was the literary language of the court but was otherwise not widely spoken. There were probably even fewer speakers of Arabic. This language was generally confined to the study of the religious sciences, which may have been rudimentary; the composition of certain documents; inscriptions; and coinage.
Turkish was not yet a written language. There were some Turkish poets but Turkish was not a language of high culture or administration. With respect to military alliances, political marriages, and places of refuge, the Seljuks gravitated more toward Christian Constantinople than the Muslim south or east. Nevertheless, under Seljuk rule Anatolia began a cultural transformation – one that would take several centuries – in which a large Greek-speaking Christian region within the D an r 3 al-Isl am 3 would become predominantly Turkish speaking and Muslim. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
In my view, the most important question for the student of the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia to try to answer is ‘How did this happen?’ 3 The answer will certainly be multifaceted, and one may need to compare this transformation with others. The Arab invasion of Byzantine Syria, which ultimately led to its Arabisation and Islamisation, easily comes to mind, as does the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula, or al-Andalus, which resulted in a transformation ‘in the other direction’. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
Were many of the dynamics of these transformations the same? In Syria, for example, many Byzantine institutions remained intact, Greek remained an important language, and conversion to Islam was slow. The faith of the invading Arab tribes was relatively new and the level of Arabic literacy among their rulers was low, although, like the Turks, they had poets to inspire them. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
I n Anatolia, the gradual conversion of the Christian population has been attributed, in large measure, to the missionary work of Sufis or Muslim mystics. Indeed, Seljuk Anatolia seems to have been especially conducive to Sufism. It flourished there to an extent not found in contemporary Syria and Egypt. Why was this the case? As Sufi lodges spread throughout the country, under what circumstances were institutions of Islamic orthodoxy, such as mosques and madrasas, established and how did they function? And how was Islamic law brought to bear on the Muslim population? It is curious to me that the cities that the Seljuks used as their capitals, Konya and Kayseri, seem to have had no major center of orthodox, that is, Sunni instruction. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk
There was no al-Azhar as in Cairo, Umayyad Mosque as in Damascus or Great Mosque as in Aleppo (rebuilt by Nu4r al-Dı n3 , d. 1174). Furthermore, the distinction in function between Sufi lodge and madrasa was sometimes vague. 4 Why did the Seljuk sultans not take a greater interest in the promotion of Sunnism? Despite their lofty titles, such as ‘the Might of the Brilliant Religious Community, Helper of the Shining Nation of Islam, the Manifestation of the Word of God Most High, the Guardian of the Religious Community and This World,’5 they seem to have been somewhat tepid as promoters of the orthodox faith. Were they not concerned by the spread of ‘het- erodox’ beliefs? Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
Between the eighth and tenth centuries, Muslims traveled continuously and fairly intensively from al-Andalus to the Islamic east – Alexandria, Mecca and Medina – and back for the sake of learning, that is, religious instruction. This was critical for the spread and maintenance of Islam in al-Andalus. Was there similar travel from Seljuk Anatolia to centres of learning to the south – Aleppo, Damascus, and of course the Holy Cities? It is worthy of mention that in 1204 Ibn ‘Arab ı 3 met in Mecca a number of pilgrims from Konya and Malatya. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk
They were led by Majd al-D ı3 n Is h a3 q, the father of the renowned Sufi S 9 adr al-D ı3 n al-Qu4naw ı.3 Ibn ‘Arabı 3 went to Anatolia with Majd al-D ı3 n. Later, S 9 adr al-D ı3 n became Ibn ‘Arab ı3 ’ s disciple and adopted son.6 The travel of Muslims from Anatolia to centers of religious instruction in Persian- or Arabic-speaking lands, and their return, needs to be investigated. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
If the majority of Muslims in Anatolia spoke only Turkish and were nomadic, then the number who went ‘abroad’ for study must have been small. Related to this is the fact that, for the period in question, the t @ a baq a t 3 works, that is, the biographical dictionaries of jurists, or fuqaha 3’ , have almost no entries for men from Anatolia. All of this would suggest that, apart from Muslim religious scholars from abroad who were attracted to the Seljuk court or who fled to Anatolia from the Khwarazmians or Mongols, Islam may have evolved in Anatolia in some isolation, albeit within the D a r 3 al-Isl a m 3 ! If so, this could help explain the remarkable religious syncretism that occurred there. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
An Anatolia was certainly not, however, isolated from the Muslim world in other respects. It was traversed by many major trade routes that connected Constantinople with the Silk Road and Syria. Another important route running from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean linked Crimea with Alexandria. Here we may note that the most monumental structures of the Seljuk rulers were not mosques but caravanserais. How much of this trade was simply in transit? The major cities and fairs of Seljuk Anatolia certainly attracted merchants from throughout the Middle East and Europe. Did they come more to buy or sell? Anatolia was known for some products, such as alum, that were not found elsewhere, and others, such as textiles, that were held in high regard. Turkey Drama Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Watch now
Anatolia was a rich and fertile region. Did these merchants bring goods that Anatolia lacked? Did they otherwise contribute to the local culture? A full account of the economic his- tory of Seljuk Anatolia remains to be written. This account should include not only trade goods but also services, which are rarely discussed.7 The strength and complexity of the economy has important implications not only for international trade of course, but also for such things as relations with neighboring states, infrastructure, taxes, coinage, the fluorescence of the arts and perhaps even the general health of the population since trade included food products and materia medica (although much of it was of dubious efficacy). With regard to health or at least nutrition, one wonders if the people in Anatolia lived better or longer than those in other regions because of its varied agricultural abundance (fruits, vegetables, and grains), animal products, and fish (for instance, fish from Lake Van were dried and exported, and life on the Black Sea revolved around fishing for anchovies).