Historical context (brief)
Usman Ghazi was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. At the time of Uthman, the Ottoman kingdom was small in size (Beylik) and later it became a huge empire. The empire lasted until the dissolution of the Sultanate in 1922.
On 16 January 1299, Uthman declared the independence of his small kingdom from the Rum Sultanate and assumed the title of Khan of the Kayi tribe. The Ottoman Empire was one of the small Turkish kingdoms that emerged in Anatolia after the breakup of the Seljuks. Among these kingdoms, the Ottomans eventually united Anatolia under Turkish rule.
Due to the western aggression of the Mongols, many Muslims took refuge in the kingdom of Uthman. With the fall of the Byzantine Empire came the rise of the Ottoman Baylis.
Origin of the name ‘Uthman: From the earliest times the Ottomans believed that the first’ Uthman was named after the third Rashidun Caliph ‘Uthman ibn Affan. But according to some scholars his original name was Turkish which could be Atman or Atman and later it was changed to Usman.
Old Byzantine sources, including George Pekimeres, a contemporary of Uthman, refer to him as Atuman or Atman, while Greek sources refer to him as Uthman. In an old Arabic formula, his name is written by ط instead of
Rise of the Empire: According to popular belief, Ertugrul, the father of Uthman I, brought the Turkish Kayi tribe from Central Asia to Anatolia to protect them from the Mongols. Her mother’s name was Halima Khatun. Uthman Rum Sultan was the first to show allegiance to Kaikobad.
The sultan allowed him to establish Beylik in Anatolia and extend the frontier to the Byzantines in the west. This permission created opportunities as the Byzantine Empire continued to weaken. In the east, on the other hand, the Muslims under the Seljuk Turks were becoming increasingly divided due to Mongol aggression and internal strife.
Halaku Khan invaded Baghdad in 1258, the year of Uthman’s birth. In 1251, Ertugrul conquered the Nissan city of Thebes. It is renamed Sogut and is its temporary capital.
Uthman was born here. After the death of his father, Uthman became the chief of the bay. By this time, troops from all over the Islamic world had gathered in the area under his rule to fight against the weakened Byzantine Empire. In addition, many refugees came to the emirate of Uthman to escape the Mongols. Many of them were Ghazi.
Under the able leadership of Uthman, these warriors quickly developed into an effective force and laid the foundation of the empire. Uthman adopted a strategy of extending the border towards the Byzantines and avoiding clashes with his Turkish neighbors. He first proceeded through the passage from the barren region of northern Frisia to the fertile plains of Bithynia.
According to Stanford Shar, all these victories were against the local Byzantine aristocracy, some of whom were defeated in battle, and others were peacefully subjugated by various treaties. These early conquests were the subject of choice for Ottoman writers. All these legendary poets have used in their writings so that it survives in the next era. Ottoman writers valued these legends.
Usman’s dream: Usman Ghazi respected the famous Sheikh Edibali and valued his views. He often met Edibali in Eskisehire. He told Edibali the next day about the dream he had while staying at Edibali Dargah one night. He said, “My Sheikh, I saw you in a dream.
A moon has appeared on your chest. It kept rising and descending on my chest. A tree rose from my navel. It grows and has so many branches that its shadow covers the whole earth.
What does this dream mean ?? ” After being silent for a while, Edibali explained: “Congratulations Usman! Almighty God has given sovereignty to you and your descendants. My daughter will be your wife and the whole world will be safe for your children. ” Uthman’s dream played a significant role in the rise of the Ottoman Empire. To Ottoman scholars, this dream was an important literary element.
Military victory: According to Stanford Shar, Uthman’s first real military victory came after the destruction of Seljuk rule. During this time he was able to capture the forts of Eskisehir and Karajahisar. He then took possession of Yenisehe, the first important city in his region, which became the capital of the Ottomans.
After defeating the Byzantines at the Battle of Bapphius near Nice in 1302, Uthman stationed his forces near Byzantine-controlled territory. A large number of Ghazi warriors, Islamic scholars, and saints began to settle in the area controlled by Uthman.
Many of the immigrants joined his army. The later Ottoman rulers called themselves the “Sultan of the Ghazis” as it was a conference ground for Ghazi warriors and explorers from various backgrounds. As a result of Uthman’s growing influence, the Byzantines gradually left the countryside of Anatolia.
The Byzantine leadership tried to stop the Ottomans but they were not well organized and effective. In the meantime, Uthman extended his borders to the Sakaria River to the north and the Sea of Marmara to the south. His followers also took part in the conquest of the Byzantine city of Ephesus near the Aegean Sea.
As a result, the last coastal Byzantine city was captured. However, this city came under the Amir of Aidin. Uthman carried out his last campaign against Bursa. He did not take part in it personally. However, the conquest of Bursa was very important for the Ottomans.
The city served as a base for subsequent campaigns against the Byzantines. Later, Uthman’s son Orhan I moved the capital here.