Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

In the early fourteenth century, violent internal crises were shaking the great empires situated between the Oxus and the Danube – the Ilkhanid Empire in Iran, the Golden Horde in eastern Europe, and the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and western Anatolia. By the end of the same century, the descendants of Osmân, a frontier gâzî and founder of the Ottoman dynasty had established an empire stretching from the Danube to the Euphrates.

The ruler of this empire was Bâyezîd I (1389–1402), known as ‘Y ld r m’, the Thunder-bolt. At Nicopolis in 1396, he had routed a crusader army of Europe’s proudest knights; he had defied the Mamlûk sultanate, at that time the most powerful Islamic state, and captured its cities on the Euphrates. Finally, he challenged the great Timur, the new ruler of central Asia and Iran.

This first period of Ottoman history presents the problem of how Osmân Gâzî’s small frontier principality, dedicated to a Holy War against Christian Byzantium, grew to be an empire of such power and extent. One theory maintains that by accepting Islam and uniting with the Muslims the Greek population of the Marmara basin revived the Byzantine Empire as a Muslim state.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

Scholars familiar with eastern historical sources now recognize this theory as groundless speculation. These historians maintain that the origins of the Ottoman Empire must be sought in the political, cultural, and demographic developments of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Anatolia.1 The Mongol invasions of the Muslims near east from the 1220s mark the first stage in these developments.

After the Mongol victory at the Battle of Kösedağ in 1243 the Seljuk sultanate of Anatolia became a vassal state of the Ilkhanids of Iran. The immediate result of the Mongol invasions was the westward migration of the Turcomans, powerful nomadic Turkish tribes.

These had come first from central Asia to Iran and eastern Anatolia and now, once again, they moved westwards, concentrating on the frontier between Byzantium and the Seljuk sultanate, in the mountainous regions of western Anatolia. In Anatolia in 1277, there was an uprising against the idolatrous Mongols. Muslim Mamlûk forces entered Anatolia to assist the rebels, but the Mongols cruelly suppressed the uprising.

Thereafter they kept forces permanently stationed in Anatolia, tightening their grip on the country. Nevertheless, there were frequent revolts and Mongol recriminations in the following half-century.

The frontier region became a place of refuge for troops and political figures fleeing the Mongol government and, at the same time, a place where many destitute villagers and townsmen sought a new life and future.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

As a result, the population of the frontier districts increased. Seeking an opportunity to settle the rich plains on the Byzantine side of the border, the restless frontier nomads incited men to a gazâ, a Holy War against Byzantium. Warriors gathered around gâzî leaders of various origins, and their raids on Byzantine territory became more and more frequent.

Between 1260 and 1320 these gâzî leaders who organized the warlike Turcomans founded independent principalities in western Anatolia, in the lands which they had wrested from Byzantium. The contemporary Byzantine historian Pachymeres records that the Palaeologi, who had recaptured Constantinople only in 1261, was preoccupied with Balkan affairs to the consequent neglect of the Asiatic frontiers, thus making way for Turcoman inroads. In the last decade of the thirteenth century, the raids of these Turcoman gâzîs in western Anatolia amounted almost to a general invasion.

Osmân Gâzî, of all the beys, held territory furthest to the north and closest to Byzantium and the Balkans. According to Pachymeres, in about 1302 Osmân Gâzî laid siege to Iznik (Nicaea), the former Byzantine capital. The emperor sent against him a mercenary army of two thousand men, which he ambushed and defeated at Baphaeon in the summer of 1302. His defeat of an imperial army spread his fame.

Ottoman and contemporary Byzantine sources described how gâzîs from throughout Anatolia flocked to his standard; as in other frontier principalities, they took the name of their leader and became known as Osmanl s. The prospect of easy conquest and settlement attracted fresh waves of settlers of various origins from central Anatolia. It was after this victory of 1302 that the Ottoman principality became truly established.

The ideal of gazâ, the Holy War, was an important factor in the foundation and development of the Ottoman state. Society in the frontier principalities conformed to a particular cultural pattern, imbued with the idea of continuous Holy War and continuous expansion of the Dârülislâm – the realms of Islam – until they covered the whole world. Gazâ was a religious duty, inspiring every kind of enterprise and sacrifice. In frontier society, all social virtues conformed to the ideal of gazâ.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The advanced civilization of the hinterland, with its religious orthodoxy, scholastic theology, palace literature composed in an artificial literary language, and şerîat law, gave way in the frontier lands to popular culture, characterized by heretical religious orders, mysticism, epic literature, and customary law. In the principalities of Anatolia, Turkish became for the first time the administrative and literary language. Frontier society was both tolerant and complex.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

A common background brought the Byzantine frontier troops, the Prakriti, into close contact with the Muslim gâzîs. Mihal Gâzî, a Greek frontier lord who accepted Islam and cooperated with Osmân’s warriors, is a famous example of the process of assimilation.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Holy War was intended not to destroy but to subdue the infidel world, the dârülharb. The Ottomans established their empire by uniting Muslim Anatolia and the Christian Balkans under their rule and, although continuous Holy War was the fundamental principle of the state, the empire emerged, at the same time, as a protector of the Orthodox Church and millions of Orthodox Christians. Islam guaranteed the lives and property of Christians and Jews, on the conditions of obedience and payment of a poll tax.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

It allowed them the free exercise of their own religions and to live according to their own religious laws. Living in a frontier society and mixing freely with Christians, the Ottomans applied these principles of Islam with the greatest liberality and tolerance. During the early years of the empire, the Ottomans pursued a policy of attempting to secure the voluntary submission and confidence of the Christians, before resorting to warfare.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles
Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The protective administration of the Islamic State, with its religious laws and guarantees of tolerance, succeeded in the terrifying raids of the gâzîs. Furthermore, the protection of the peasantry as a source of tax revenue was a traditional policy of the near-eastern state, and one which encouraged an attitude of tolerance. Income from the poll-tax haraç, formed a large portion of Ottoman state revenue, just as it had constituted an important part of the revenue of the early Islamic caliphate.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The Ottoman Empire was thus to become a true ‘Frontier Empire’, a cosmopolitan state, treating all creeds and races as one, which was to unite the Orthodox Christian Balkans and Muslim Anatolia in a single state.
The gâzî principalities of western Anatolia soon adopted the tradition and institutions of the Seljuk sultanate. Cities such as Kastamonu, Karahisar or Denizli, established in the old Seljuk frontier districts, became centres of Seljuk civilization.

Administrators and scholars brought the traditions of Islamic statecraft and civilization from these towns and from the cities of central Anatolia to Milas, Balat, Birgi, Izmir, Manisa and Bursa, which had become the capitals of the gâzî principalities established on former Byzantine territory.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

Each principality became a small sultanate. For example, Orhan, the son of Osman, struck his first silver coins in Bursa in 1327, and established a medrese in Iznik in 1331; in 1340 he created a trading centre in Bursa, with the construction of a bazaar and a pedestrian, an enclosed market for the sale of valuable goods.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The Arab traveller Ibn Ba u a2 visited Bursa in about 1333 and described it as ‘a great city with fine bazaars and broad streets.’ This was the general social and cultural background to the foundation of the Ottoman and other frontier principalities.

Holy War and colonization were the dynamic elements in the Ottoman conquests; the administrative and cultural forms adopted in the conquered territories derived from the traditions of near-eastern politics and civilization.

In the 1350s the Ottoman state was no more than one of many frontier principalities, but events after 1352 so firmly established its superiority over the others that, within thirty years, they had become Ottoman vassals. The crucial event was the Ottomans’ gaining a foothold in the Balkans, with prospects of limitless expansion towards the west.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The initial crossing from Anatolia into Europe was a difficult task, since the Dardanelles was in Christian hands, and any force which the Ottomans might land in Thrace would be unable to hold out and would be annihilated by the Byzantines. The principality of Karesi, lying on the eastern side of the Dardanelles, resolved the problem for the Ottomans.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

A series of events led up to this Ottoman success. A struggle for the throne of Karesi in 1345 gave Orhan an opportunity to annex the principality. The troops from Karesi which had entered Ottoman service began to advocate an expedition across the Dardanelles and, under the command of Orhan’s son, Süleymân, the commander of the western frontier, they prepared for the venture.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Events were on their side. In 1346, Orhan had made an alliance with John V Cantacuzenus, a claimant to the Byzantine throne, and had married John’s daughter, Theodora. This provided the Ottomans with an opportunity to intervene in the domestic problems of Byzantium and to participate in the war in Thrace.

When, in 1352, Süleymân went to Adrianople, with the assistance of Cantacuzenus against Serbian and Bulgarian forces, he took possession of Tzympe on the Eastern Shore of the Gallipoli isthmus. Despite the insistent requests of Cantacuzenus, he refused to evacuate the fortress and began to reinforce this bridgehead with fresh troops from Anatolia, at the same time laying siege to the fortress of Gallipoli.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles
Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

On the night of 1– 2 March 1354, an earthquake destroyed the walls of Gallipoli and other fortresses in the area; Süleymân’s forces immediately occupied these strong points. He repaired the forts and garrisoned them with troops from Anatolia, firmly establishing the Ottomans on European soil. The event aroused great anxiety in Byzantium and the western  Christian world.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

In August 1354 the Venetian bailo in Constantinople wrote that Constantinople, faced with this danger, was prepared to place itself under the protection of a powerful Christian state; in Europe, there were plans for a crusade, intended not to recapture Jerusalem but to save Constantinople from the Ottomans; the project for the union of the Latin and Greek Churches was taken up again with renewed zeal.

Gregory Palamas, the Archbishop of Salonica, whom the Ottomans captured in 1354 after the conquest of Gallipoli, reported his captors as having told him that the continued advance of Islam from east to west was clear proof that God aided them and that Islam was the true religion.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

1 In order to strengthen his European bridgehead, Süleymân transported Muslims, particularly nomads who could easily be resettled, from Anatolia to Europe. New Turkish villages were established and the frontiers, under the general command of Süleymân, were organized into right, left and centre marches, each under the authority of a gâzî lord.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The Ottoman raids continued and the area of Ottoman occupation expanded. However, Süleymân’s sudden and tragic death in 1357 and the Phocaeans’ capture of Orhan’s youngest son, Halîl, forced Orhan to make peace with Byzantium.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Events encouraged the Byzantines to attempt to regain Thrace by diplomatic means. Süleymân’s conquests were threatened, and the frontier forces were anxious and restless. When Halîl was released in 1359, the gâzîs realized that to delay action was to invite defeat and necessitate the evacuation of Europe.

The sultan’s son, Murâd, the commander of the Gallipoli march, and his tutor Lala Şâhîn, a dedicated warrior, began an offensive aimed at the eventual capture of Adrianople. In the first year, they took the fortresses along the Maritsa valley and those on the road from Constantinople to Adrianople, thus cutting off the supply lines to the city. In 1361 the final sortie by the defending forces failed and Adrianople, the capital of Thrace, surrendered in the same year.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The conquests in Thrace followed the same pattern as those in Anatolia. In the face of continued gâzî raids, the local Greeks took refuge in the citadels. The inhabitants of towns that submitted voluntarily were left unmolested; if the inhabitants resisted they were forced to leave their town to the Turks.

The Ottoman government encouraged Turks from Anatolia, sometimes by forcible deportation, to settle the newly conquered lands. Dervishes, too, founded innumerable zâviyes – hospices, which were later to become the nuclei of new Turkish villages. Turkish colonization rapidly followed the conquests in Thrace, creating a firm base for future Ottoman expansion in Europe.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

Geographical conditions determined the pattern of Ottoman conquest in the Balkans. They followed the direction of the historic Via Egnatia towards the west, reaching the Albanian coast in 1385, by way of Serres, Monastir and Okhrida. The local lords in Macedonia and Albania accepted Ottoman suzerainty.

The second line of advance was against Thessaly, with the port and city of Salonica falling in 1387; a third followed the road from Constantinople to Belgrade and, in 1365, the Maritsa valley came, with little resistance, under Ottoman control.2 Crossing the Balkan passes, in 1385, they entered the Morava valley by way of Sofia and Nish, and in the following year reduced the kingdom of Serbia to vassalage.
The gâzîs on the left flank followed the Tundzha valley, crossing the Balkan range through the Karnobad Pass.

Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles
Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

In 1372 the Despot of the Dobrudja and the King of Bulgaria became Ottoman vassals. By now the Ottomans controlled the main routes in the Balkan peninsula and, as they had done after the conquest of Gallipoli, they brought nomads from Anatolia, including powerful yürük groups, and settled them along the main highways and in the surrounding mountainous regions.Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles

The principal Ottoman cities in the Balkans were originally frontier settlements along the main routes of advance. Densely populated Turkish colonies were established in the frontier regions of Thrace, the Maritsa valley and the Tundzha valley. The local lords in the areas bordering Ottoman territory in the Balkans accepted the sovereignty of the Ottoman sultan, now master of the peninsula.

It is not difficult to account for the ease of Ottoman conquest in the Balkans. The Ottoman invasion coincided with a time of political fragmentation when many independent kings, despots and lords of small Balkan principalities did not hesitate to seek outside help in the settlement of their own local disputes. In the midst of the anarchy prevailing in the Balkans, only the Ottomans pursued a consistent policy, and only they possessed the military strength and centralized authority necessary for its execution.

The Ottomans possessed another great advantage in the Janissary corps, the first standing army in Europe. The sultan had formed the corps from prisoners of war, after the capture of Adrianople, and it was directly


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Kurulus Osman Episode 91 With English Subtitles Free

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