Juddho o valobashas
Juddho o valobashas WAR AND LOVE BANGLA DUBING
Juddho o valobashas WAR AND LOVE
20 he Great Seljuk EmpireThe scale of the state the Seljuks founded dwarfed any earlier Muslim Turkish polity – indeed, in terms of area, it was second only to the ‘Abbasid caliphate at its height and was considerably larger than any of the other contemporary Muslim empires such as the Fatimids in Egypt or the Almoravids in Morocco and Spain. By the late eleventh century, the lands that recognised Seljuk suze-rainty stretched from Palestine in the west to as far as Kashghar in what is now China in the east.
Even the somewhat reduced empire of the mid- twelfth century still reached from Iraq to Samarqand in Central Asia, and, according to the calculation of one contemporary traveller, took four months to cross.13These lands, comprising most of the heartland of mediaeval Islamic civi-lisation, were bound together by the dominance of Islam and its culture,
by the common political heritage of the ‘Abbasid caliphate (128/750–637/1258) to which all were nominally subject, and by historic road networks that were traversed by scholars, pilgrims and merchants. They were populated by a massively diverse range of religious, linguistic and ethnic groups: there were nomads and sedentaries, Arabs, a plethora of different ethnically Iranian groups, not to speak of the various Georgian, Armenian, Greek and Syriac- speaking Christians, as well as Jews,
Zoroastrians and other smaller remnants of pre- Islamic religions. Although an exact equivalent for the word ‘empire’ does not exist in pre- modern Arabic or Persian, and the Seljuk polity was called simply a dawla (dynasty), sal†ana (sultanate) or mulk (kingdom), the modern term seems entirely appropriate for a state that encompassed without doubt greater diversity than any of its contemporaries in the Islamic world. It also serves to distinguish the subject of this book, the Great Seljuk Empire, from the smaller Seljuk polities that arose on its peripheries (discussed further below).The Great Seljuks dominated the Middle East and Islamic Central Asia between c. 431/1040 and 552/1157.
For most of its history, the empire was divided into a western and eastern half, and it lacked a single capital city or political centre. In the east, the main seat of Seljuk rule was Merv, in modern Turkmenistan. In the west, several different cities between which the sul-tans moved seasonally served as capitals: Rayy near modern Tehran, Isfaha
[8:35 AM, 3/7/2022] Mizanur Rahaman: Baghdad and, later, Hamadhan. These western territories were known as the Sultanate of Iraq. Iraq here is meant in its mediaeval sense, and thus com-prises western Iran (historic ‘Iraq al- ‘Ajam, Persian Iraq, also known as the Jibal) as well as ‘Iraq al- Arab (Arab Iraq), corresponding to the central and southern parts of the modern state of Iraq (the north of which, along with parts of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Syria, was known as the Jazira – the ‘island’ between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers).
From 511/1118, the Seljuk sultans of Iraq recognised the suzerainty of the Great Seljuk ruler Sanjar, based in Khurasan, who was known by the title of al- sul†ān al- a‘Õam, ‘the Greatest Sultan’. The sultans of Iraq are sometimes referred to as the ‘Le…
[8:36 AM, 3/7/2022] Mizanur Rahaman: he Great Seljuk Empire also encompassed many other vassal rulers, ranging from Bedouin Arab chiefs in Iraq like the Mazyadids and ‘Uqaylids, to dynasties like the Bawandids on the Caspian coast of Iran who could trace their roots back to pre- Islamic times. Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela,
who visited the Seljuk lands in the mid- twelfth century, stated that no fewer than forty- five kings were subject to the sultan’s authority.15 One might quibble with the exact number, but the general picture is fair. Surrounded on all sides by Seljuk territories was, from the late eleventh century, the state of the Ismailis in the Alburz mountains of northern Iran, in Quhistan in eastern Iran, and in parts of Syria, which did not recognise Seljuk suzerainty. No effort is made to…
Mizanur Rahaman: he Rise of the Seljuks: From the Eurasian Steppe to the Gates of Cairo, c. 965–1092Contemporaries struggled to understand the Seljuk conquests. The Armenian historian Aristakes Lastiverttsi, writing in the 1070s of events some thirty years earlier, could comprehend their speed and savagery only as a sign of divine anger with his native land:[T]