Alparslan buyuk Seljuk Episode 23 English Subtitles
Alparslan buyuk seljuk bolum 23 English Subtitles
Alparslan Episode 23 English subtitles
The Seljuk Empire under Alp Arslan, 1063–72 Despite several marriages, Tughrıl died childless, having appointed as his successor his infant nephew Sulayman, who was backed by the vizier Kunduri,171 doubtless in the hope of obtaining vast power during a regency for the child.
Alparslan buyuk seljuk bolum 23 English Subtitles
However, Sulayman’s elder brother, Alp Arslan, ruler of Khurasan since his father Chaghrı’s death in 451/1059, had already started to advance westwards on hearing rumors of Tughrıl’s malady.
After seeing off the challenge of Qutlumush, who died in battle outside Rayy, Alp Arslan turned to deal with Kunduri, whom he swiftly had imprisoned, executed, and replaced with his own vizier, Nizam al- Mulk, who had served him in Khurasan. Tughrıl’s and Chaghrı’s lands, stretching from Iraq to Transoxiana, were now united for the first time under one ruler. However, this was no time for consolidation, Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English Subtitles
Alp Arslan’s reign witnessed a relentless series of campaigns, usually headed by the sultan himself, which took him the length and breadth of the empire. Although these campaigns would culminate in the sultan’s famous victory over Byzantium at Manzikert in eastern Anatolia in 463/1071, they were driven at least as much by the exigencies of internal politics as by the desire for expansion.
Some campaigns aimed to bring the sultan’s errant relatives to heel, such as Alp Arslan’s brother Qavurt, the ruler of Kirman (see Figure 1.5).
Although Qavurt had recognized Alp Arslan’s accession by having his name mentioned in the khu†ba, he also demanded his ‘share in his inheritance’, which he sought to assert by capturing Shiraz and threatening Isfahan. Alp Arslan was obliged to head in person no fewer than three expeditions against him, and it was not until the beginning of Malikshah’s reign that Qavurt was finally captured and killed, although even then his descendants were left in control of Kirman and its outremer territory of Oman.
Campaigns were also directed at imposing sultanic authority on the Türkmen, such as those in Central Asia in 457–8/1064–5 which explicitly targeted ‘wrong-doing’ (i.e., rebellious) Türkmen. Given that much Türkmen settlement was concentrated on the borders of the empire, where pasture was much more freely available than in arid central Iran or Iraq, these campaigns could also be legitimized to a wider audience as jihad, holy war, against the Seljuks’ non- Muslim neighbors.
For instance, one of Alp Arslan’s first acts as sultan, three months after his entry to Rayy, was to launch a major expedition into the Caucasus. Accompanied by his vizier Nizam al-Mulk and son Malikshah, he advanced northwest from Marand up the River Kur through Nakhchivan, burning and plundering his way through southern Georgia before seizing the great Armenian trading city of Ani, then in Byzantine hands.
His victories, relayed in letters to Baghdad, clearly had great propaganda value in representing the sultan as a doughty fighter for Islam; but in reality, they were not intended to annex territory. Just as with earlier campaigns in the region, no Seljuk garrisons were installed, and existing fortifications were razed.
As much as jihad, the aim was to allow the sultan to carry out the traditional nomad chief’s role of securing pasture and plunder, cement bonds of loyalty with his nomadic subjects, and appeal to disaffected Türkmen after the death of Qutlumush.179 That such a campaign should take priority over dealing with Qavurt or any of the sultan’s other relatives suggests both that there was more at stake than merely the territorial expansion of the empire and underlines the extent to which Alp Arslan still felt himself to be beholden to a nomadic constituency.
Alp Arslan seems to have been especially concerned by the activities of a Türkmen grouping called the Nawakiyya, who started to settle in Syria and the borders of Anatolia around the beginning of his reign. Exactly who the Nawakiyya were is unclear, but they may well have been connected with the earlier Balkan-K Abhiyan and ‘Iraqiyya, who now disappear from the record.
Their leaders were often of aristocratic, even Seljuk birth. A certain Ibn Khan, who operated around Aleppo, is described as a Türkmen prince; Qutlumush’s son Sulayman was a Nawakiyya leader, as was the sultan’s brother-in-law Arisighi/Eresghen/Erbasghan (the reconstruction of the name is unclear).
The Nawakiyya were widely used by various parties in Syria – including the Fatimids – as mercenaries or auxiliaries. Owing to his poor relations with Alp Arslan, Erbasghan and his followers sought to enter Byzantine service, threatening to destabilize Byzantine–Seljuk relations.
Initially, despite the loss of Ani, the Byzantines had sought amicable relations with the Seljuks, and these seem to have been sealed by a formal treaty.
For reasons which are unclear, the Byzantines offered Erbasghan and his men shelter; perhaps they believed they could use them against other Türkmen, or as a bargaining chip, or simply sought to take advantage of their military prowess. The emperor Romanus was anxious to assert Byzantine power in eastern Anatolia and northern Syria, against which he had launched expeditions that captured the town of Manbij and threatened Aleppo,183 although at the time these territories were not subject to the Seljuk Empire.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Romanus’ Syrian campaigns seem to have worried Alp Arslan much less than his aid to these Nawakiyya, and the sultan threatened to break the truce if Erbasghan and his Nawakiyya were not handed over.184 The sultan had marched to Syria to impose his authority over local Arab rulers such as the Mirdasids of Aleppo (who were also employing Nawakiyya troops) and then advanced on the Diyar Bakr (itself a major Türkmen winter pasture).Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
When he heard that Romanus was leading a great army eastwards, aiming to cement the emperor’s authority by putting an end to the Turkish raids which had plagued the plateau for the last forty years, Alp Arslan seized the opportunity to divert his army to confront the emperor who had given shelter to his Nawakiyya enemies. The two forces met at Manzikert, north of Lake Van, in 463/1071; the Byzantines were routed, and Romanus was taken, prisoner.
Manzikert is conventionally considered one of the great turning points in world history, opening the way to the collapse of the Byzantine empire in Anatolia and the establishment of Turkish rule there. However, both Byzantine and Muslim sources agree that Alp Arslan offered Romanus generous peace terms, involving merely the concession of a few frontier fortresses such as Edessa and the payment of an indemnity. Rather than his defeat in battle,
it was the ensuing civil war with his Byzantine rivals that cost Romanus his throne and led to the collapse of Constantinople’s authority across much of the Anatolian plateau. The vacuum left by this collapse did open the way to the formation of Turkish principalities in Asia Minor.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Moreover, the defeat at Manzikert highlighted Byzantium’s weakness to the wider world, and it inspired broader Christian fears of the empire’s imminent demise before Islam.187 With his dual victories over Christendom at Ani and Manzikert, it is not surprising that both Muslim and Christian sources portray Alp Arslan as a religiously-motivated warrior for Islam.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Matthew of Edessa, for instance, describes him as ‘the venomous serpent of the Persians’, and in phrases reminiscent of Aristakes calls him ‘the instrument of divine wrath’ who ‘spread the flaming fire of death to all the Christian faithful and filled all Armenia with blood, the sword and enslavement’.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Matthew records how, on the conquest of Ani, the great silver cross on the cathedral was taken and placed on the entrance to the mosque of Nakhchivan for believers to step on in contempt.189 Sibt b. al-J Fawzi mentions similar stories of the desecration of crosses, Alparslan buyuk Seljuk Episode 23 English
suggesting a policy of deliberately stressing the jihad element of these campaigns. For Ibn al-A thir, meanwhile, these military victories were not the sole cause for celebration.
The sultan was a man who acted piously in accordance with the precepts of Islam, giving alms to the poor, was fond of having histories of past kings and their behavior read out to him, and was solicitous in preventing his soldiers from plundering his subjects’ property.191 In reality, like Tughrıl, Alp Arslan had his price:
Matthew of Edessa also relates how the Armenian king of Kars managed to buy off Alp Arslan’s threatened attack by offering vassalage, cash, and a lavish banquet.192 Even for his Muslim subjects, the experience of Alp Arslan’s rule was nothing like as appealing as Ibn al- Athir portrays, judging by the account of the contemporary Baghdadi diarist Ibn al-B anna’. In a letter to the caliph,
Ibn al-B anna’ lamented the injustice of his age: As for the learned men, no word of theirs is heard, nor is any order of theirs obeyed. As for the virtuous men, they silently keep to their homes. As for those who are trustworthy officials, to whom the virtuous men complain of the trouble which they experience for the sake of religion, they lighten its burden upon them, and exert their efforts in good causes, either by that which they remove or by that which they do.
Some of them have died and passed on to God – to Whom might and majesty belong! – may God be pleased with them, and others wait. They have already become the targets of the oppressors, who pursue them in their dependents, their possessions, and their affairs. Thus they have become preoccupied with themselves away from all occurrences and affliction.
Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
This passage does not ascribe blame for the oppression and injustice, but other passages in Ibn al- Banna’s diary suggest that he held the Seljuks responsibly. The terror that might be inspired merely by rumors of the sultan’s approach to Baghdad with his army is described:.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
An announcement was made on the west bank [of Baghdad] to the effect that whoever owns a shop, and other property which may be plundered, should move it and keep himself in a state of preparation, on account of what has been rumored concerning the arrival of the King [Alp Arslan]; for he has armies with him whose quartering in residences cannot be trusted.
Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
On hearing the announcement, the people became greatly disturbed Such rapacity was practiced not only by ordinary soldiers but by high-ranking Seljuk officials. Ibn al-B anna’ records one attempt by Alp Arslan to admonish his governor of Baghdad: A well-written decision, regarding the Muslims, was issued by the Sultan – May God make mighty His assistance to him!Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
The ‘Amid [Seljuk governor of Baghdad] was ordered to desist from molesting the Muslims, and to refrain from what he was demanding of them by way of the house- rents for past years, and other such schemes. He would say to them: ‘You are foreign residents in the houses of the Turks, and I want the rent from you!’, and similar demands, such as mattresses and other things.
Especially striking is the ‘amīd ’s pride in his status as a Turk, and his contempt for the settled population of Baghdad, the ‘foreign residents’ in the Turks’ rightful property. Such attitudes were not easily overcome. On the one hand, Ibn al-B anna’ does confirm Ibn al-A other’s stories of Alp Arslan trying to rein in his soldiery, through a ‘written decision’, itself suggesting the growing bureaucratization of aspects of the Seljuk state..Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
On the other hand, it seems that the ‘amīd ’s arbitrary imposition of taxes and seizure of property was common practice, for Sibt b. al-J Fawzi also refers to Alp Arslan’s vain efforts to control the rapacity of his Turkish officials.196 This picture is confirmed by sources dealing with Isfahan, which also reveals discontent with arbitrary and exorbitant levels of taxation.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
In many ways, then, Alp Arslan’s reign represents continuity with Tughrıl’s. Alongside lip- service to the precepts of Islamic rulership, the sultan continued to act much as a nomadic chief, seeking to defeat not just the infidel enemies of Islam but also rivals within his own family, and to consolidate his authority not just over the Seljuks’ newly conquered lands but also over his Türkmen subjects.
Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Malikshah and Nizam al- Mulk, 1072–92
Alp Arslan’s murder at the age of forty in Rabi‘ I 465/October 1072 by the banks of the Oxus River, on a campaign to subjugate the Qarakhanids of Transoxiana, was followed by the customary struggle for the 3succession (detailed on p. 132).Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
However, the army that had accompanied the sultan to the Oxus remained loyal to his young son Malikshah at the urging of the vizier Nizam al-Mulk.198 Hindsight has seen Malikshah’s reign as the apogee of Seljuk rule (see Map 1.2), with the sultan ‘acknowledged in the khu†ba from the borders of China to the extremities of Syria and from the northernmost lands of Islam to Yemen’.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Malikshah sent an expedition to assert Seljuk’s authority in Mecca in the Hijaz (which under Alp Arslan had briefly recognized Seljuk suzerainty)200 and Yemen, capturing Aden by the Indian Ocean. The Byzantine empire – at least according to Islamic sources – was reduced to paying tribute to the Seljuks.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Campaigns in Central Asia allowed Malikshah to repel the Qarakhanids from the key frontier city of Tirmidhi on the Oxus which they had captured at the beginning of his reign,203 and in 482/1089 he was able to seize the Qarakhanid bases of Samarqand and Bukhara, even advancing as far as Kashghar.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Subject princes would ‘kiss [Malikshah’s] letters out of awe and honor for him, or so Isfahani, for whom this sultan’s reign was a model compared to which all others fell short, would have us believe.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Contemporary Seljuk propaganda commemorated the sultan’s campaigns in stone: inscriptions and reliefs on the walls at Amid (modern Diyarbakır in southeastern Turkey) dated 481–2/1088–90 have been interpreted as serving as a ‘victory monument’ (Mashhad al- na‚r) that immortalized to the city’s surrender to Malikshah after a two-year siege (Figures 1.7(a) and (b)).Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
In fact, the most spectacular advances were made by Türkmen groups, whose relationship with the sultan remained ambiguous. On the one hand, some Türkmen attacks seem to have been encouraged by Malikshah; on the other, some Türkmen leaders constituted a major threat to Malikshah’s per- sonal authority.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
We will assess first the Türkmen expansion on the frontiers of the Seljuk Empire; we will then turn to deal with the internal situation, specifically the vizier Nizam al-Mulk and his relations with Malikshah on the one hand, and the Türkmen on the other.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
The activities of two Türkmen chiefs, Artuq and Atsız, suggest the complexities of the Türkmen’s role in Malikshah’s empire. Artur had plundered Basra and the date-filled oases of al-A on the east coast of Arabia in 469/1086.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 22 English
Despite the wanton attack on Basra, Artuq seems to have continued to be regarded with favor by Malikshah, and he was later allotted territories in the Jibal207 – rather more suitable, ecologically, for a Türkmen. Indeed, during his campaign into al- Ahsa’, Artuq had attacked the local Qarmatians, an Ismaili Shi‘ite group, he was personally thanked by the caliph.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Later we find Artuq assisting sultanic forces in operations in Syria,208 although later he rebelled, using Türkmen support to carve out a base for himself there.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Under Artuq’s descendants, his territories in the Jazira became an independent polity, the Artuqid state, that drew on Great Seljuk practice and precedent.210 The career of the Khwarazmian Türkmen Atsız b. Awqaf was likewise characterized by both tension and cooperation with the Seljuk sultan. Atsız ruled what Turkish scholars have described as a Nawakiyya principality (Bielik) in Syria.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Initially, Atsız seems to have operated with the consent of the sultan, gradually pushing Fatimid forces out of most of the coast and Jerusalem from 463/1070 onwards, and finally capturing Damascus in 468/1075. Indeed, Atsız’s Türkmen forces were supplemented by 3,000 slave soldiers sent by Malikshah.212 However, Atsız overreached himself with a dis- estrous campaign against Egypt in 469/1076–7.Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Initially, he met with some success, plundering the Nile Delta for two months while the main Fatimid army was campaigning in Upper Egypt. A Jewish witness resident in Cairo, Solomon Ben-Joseph Ha-C then, recorded with horror Atsız’s pillaging and desecration, both in Egypt and previously in Jerusalem: Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English
Alparslan buyuk seljuk Episode 23 English