Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of the period in question is social life in the broadest sense. It is best to think of Seljuk Anatolia as a kind of ‘salad’, a region with a unique mixture of religions and eth- nic groups. This made the cultural evolution of Anatolia noticeably different from that of other regions of the Muslim world. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 19 Here we have Greeks and Armenians (and some Georgians) who practised dif- ferent forms of Christianity and Turks (including distinct tribes and new arrivals from Central Asia in the army of the Khw a r3 azmsh a h3 ),Kurds and some Persians, Arabs and Mongols practising different forms of Islam, or shamanism in the case of some Turks and Mongols, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 19 Laz (when and how did they become Muslims?), a scattering of Jews and no doubt resident merchant communities that included many Europeans. These groups were all acculturated to each other, a pro- cess the intensity of which depended on local conditions. During the two centuries of Seljuk political domination, they continuously exchanged customs and rituals, religious beliefs, forms of adminis- tration and taxation, stories and legends, music and dance, crafts, food, women and words. As Shukurov suggests in his chapter, bilin- gualism among Greeks, Armenians and Turks was probably much more common than we realise. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles Watch episode 18
As some scholars have mentioned, the ‘eclectic’, if not bizarre, decoration of the renowned hospital at Divri g 5 i might well symbolise this mixture. We know that people from various backgrounds, religious and ethnic, could participate in the construction of religious (e.g. mosques) and non-religious struc- tures (e.g. caravanserais, hospitals). Tracing acculturation can be challenging, but perhaps asking cer- tain questions will help. What proportion of the whole population was rural or urban? What proportion was settled or nomadic? What was the density of the population, settled or nomadic, in various parts of the region? How large were the cities? Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles Watch Episode 17
How were the cities bound to their satellite villages? To what extent did members of different religious or ethnic groups live in separate quarters in the cities, or share space? Were most villages composed of one group? Did certain groups dominate certain crafts or monopolise certain products? The symbiotic relationship between town and country, nomad and villa- ger, among many farmers and craftsmen, or even between saint and supplicant, contributed naturally to acculturation. Understanding how acculturation took place can be especially revealing. By this means we can learn how different groups interacted and behaved. 9 Finally, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles Watch Episode 16
before turning to sources I would like to comment on one other dimension of the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia that warrants additional research: that is their political and military relations with the Muslim states of Egypt and Syria, Iraq and fur- ther east. As I have done above, scholars usually emphasise that the Seljuks tended to gravitate to the west, or Byzantium, rather than to the south and east, in their political and military relations. We should not forget, however, that Seljuk ambitions included expan- sion toward the east which sometimes resulted in complicated diplo- macy and conflict with neighbouring Muslim powers, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles Watch Episode 15
above all the Ayyubids in Egypt and Syria and the Ayyubid line in Diyarbakır, which also controlled Mayy a f3 a r3 iq ı 3n (Silvan), Jabal Sinj a r3 , H isn Kayf a 3 (Hasankeyf), Ahlat and other towns. Relations with the Ayyubids were often hostile, such as when they contested territory in the Jazira, but they quickly changed when faced with a common threat, such as the Khw a3 razmsh a3 h or the Mongols. In 1234, al-Malik al-K a 3 mil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, carried out a disastrous inva- sion of Anatolia in response to ‘Al a ’3 al-D ı n3 Kayqub a 3d I’s capture of Ahlat the previous year. Al-K a m 3 il hoped, in fact, to expand his realm well into Anatolia, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
but he fell victim to the Seljuk sultan’s military tactics and ability to play the Ayyubid princes against each other.1 0 In peaceful times there were marriage alliances, exchanges of envoys and continuous trade. The Seljuk sultan ‘Izz al-D ı 3 n Kayk a 3 ’ u-s I even corresponded with Jal a 3 l al-D ı3 n H a san III (r. 1210–21), the ruler of the Nizari Isma‘ilis headquartered at Alamut in Iran. Among other things, he described to him the Seljuk armies’ reconquest of Antalya from the Christians in 1216. 1 1 This suggests that the Seljuks of Anatolia were in contact with, and were informed about, Muslim rulers well beyond their immediate neighbours. Watch
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles In short, further investigation of the Seljuks’ relations with the states to the south and east are needed in order to place the Seljuk sultanate in its proper pol- itical context and to show the extent to which it was integrated into the wider Muslim world. The key, of course, to shedding light on the issues that I have mentioned here, as well as on those raised in the chapters in this vol- ume, is the sources. Students of the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia have long lamented the paucity of contemporary narratives describ- ing this history. Watch All Episode
And the narratives that we have are virtually all in Persian. The dearth of narratives no doubt resulted from the facts that Turkish was not yet a literary language and that the audience of Persian speakers was very small. The few narratives, in any language, may also be an indicator of the small size of the Turkish element in Anatolia and of the small number of urban Turks, who were more likely to be literate. In other words, the number and type of narra- tives that we have are probably a reasonable reflection of the size and nature of the audience. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
The lack of narratives may tell us something, but we have to be careful. W hile exploiting the narratives that we have, the authors of the present volume have been extremely resourceful in extracting information on various aspects of Seljuk history and culture from non-narrative sources, such as titulature, inscriptions, art and archi- tecture. The amount of information that can be gleaned simply from the recovery of the name of one of the wives of a Seljuk sultan, as Scott Redford has done in his chapter, is remarkable. Our authors have also re-emphasised the need to expand our vision to include sources in non-Muslim languages, primarily Greek and Armenian, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
not the least because Christians were the majority of the population under Seljuk rule. If we add Latin and Syriac, we have more, and more diverse, sources on the Seljuks than is generally recognised. Making them accessible will take work.
Many well-known sources need to be reviewed and even corrected, as is the case with a number of inscriptions. Some published lit- erary sources may also need to be revised. We now have a facsim- ile digital edition of the unique Syriac manuscript of Michael the Syrian’s Chronicle. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
which should be compared with J.C. Chabot’s French translation. The latter, published in Paris between 1899 and 1910, was made under somewhat dubious circumstances. The many contemporary Arabic literary sources in our possession have not been fully explored. D.S. Richards’ recent translation of Ibn al-Ath ı r3 ’s a l-Ka 3m il for the years 491–629/1097–1231 now makes most of that work’s coverage of the Seljuks readily accessible to English readers, 13 but some works still hold surprises. The History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
written by various authors – some contemporaneous with the Seljuks – over many centuries, contains, somewhat unex- pectedly, what is apparently the earliest known account in Arabic of the Battle of Manzikert. It also contains an unknown description of Alp Arslan’s siege of Edessa prior to that battle. 1 4 The exten- sive coinage of the Seljuks, quite literally a treasure trove of mater- ial on political and economic history, needs much more attention. 1 5 Furthermore, we have abundant art and architectural remains that await analysis. In short, we have many different sources, and in some cases an abundance of sources, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
that are comparable to those for some of the most studied regions of the medieval Muslim world. All infor- mation is valuable. Much can be extrapolated from a few facts, and one cannot predict how they may help flesh out certain subjects or answer future questions. Finally, let me say a few words about a poorly known and poorly exploited source whose importance should not be underestimated for the history of the Seljuks of Anatolia: waqf documents or w aqfiyyas .
A waqf was a pious endowment that was established for the public good or for the benefit of one’s family. In either case, the endow- ment usually consisted of various kinds of property. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
The revenue that it generated was to be used in perpetuity for a specific purpose. In Anatolia, as in other parts of the Muslim world, w aqfs were used to construct and maintain religious and non-religious institutions and facilities, chiefly mosques, madrasas, Sufi convents or hospices, soup kitchens, hospitals, bridges, fountains and irrigation systems. The documents that were drawn up for these endowments were highly detailed. They usually began with honorifics concerning the founder followed by the purpose of the endowment; a delineation of its prop- erties; an explanation of the function of the endowed institution; a description of its staff, services provided, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
salaries and expenses, and oversight; and its relationship to the founder’s family. The property used to endow a large institution, such as a mosque, could be very extensive. It could include a large number of villages – everything in them, and all their agricultural lands – and many shops and other revenue-generating centres, such as warehouses, in the cities. All of this is clearly spelled out. T he importance of w aqf documents for the study of social and eco- nomic history has long been recognised. But what has not been prop- erly appreciated is that we have a very large cache of such documents from Seljuk Anatolia. Many decades ago, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
Mehmet Altay K ö ymen examined 49 of them in various places.1 6 Indeed, some of the oldest surviving waqf -ıyas in the Muslim world are from the period of the Seljuk sultanate. Moreover, Nicolas Tré p anier has recently analysed another 35 from fourteenth-century Anatolia, which are also relevant in many respects to the preceding Seljuk period. 1 7 As K ö ymen noted, these documents can be used for many purposes, including the study of ethnicity, religious and social relations, toponomy, onomastic and economic development. We could easily add demography, agricul- ture and the professions. In a study that is in press, I have shown how, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles during the Seljuk period, waqfs often included Christian vil- lages and lands that generated funds to support Muslim institutions, particularly religious institutions. Thus, by contributing monetar- ily to these institutions, Christians contributed, albeit involuntarily, to their own cultural transformation, that is, Islamisation. In other words, the w aqf was used as a mechanism for the Islamisation of Anatolia.1 8 This is only one example of the kind of ore that can be mined from this rich vein of material. T hese documents have the potential to tell us more about life in Seljuk Anatolia than any other type of source. A proper economic history,
in particular, of this period cannot be written without them. In order to exploit fully these documents, they must, of course, be accessible. Osman Turan first published three of them, among the oldest, in the late 1940s.1 9 Since then, others have been published from time to time in V ak ı flar Dergisi . Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles While most of these publica- tions include a Turkish translation, few include a critical edition of the Arabic text (in some cases an unreadable facsimile is provided), and none include a translation into a western language. The last defi- ciency is important because these documents, once readily available, will, for many reasons, undoubtedly attract the attention of scholars working on other regions and periods of the Muslim world.
Therefore, to my mind, one of the most urgent tasks for students of the history of Seljuk Anatolia is to publish a corpus of these w aqfı y 3 as , perhaps modelled on the old R é pertoire chronologique d’épigraphie arabe , that includes the Arabic text, a Turkish translation and a translation into a western language. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles This would have to be a long-term project undertaken and funded by a major university or research institute. But publishing these documents systematically and making them accessible to a wide audience is absolutely critical to an understanding of the history of Seljuk Anatolia. Turkish scholars have made a good start in this direction, but the bulk of the work remains to be done.
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles In sum, the chapters in the present volume address a specific theme of the history of the Seljuk sultanate for the first time. In the course of this, they present new sources and new interpretations of old sources, thus adding to our knowledge and understanding of this subject. Furthermore, these chapters show new avenues of research. My comments are intended to be complementary, re-emphasising both areas of future research and the richness of our sources. As sug- gested by this volume, we clearly have the skills and resources to describe, in great detail, life in one of the most fascinating regions of the medieval Muslim world.
The Anatolian Seljuk Court and Society Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
This volume addresses how dynastic power and authority based at the court interacted with broader social, political and religious com- munities throughout the realm. The reasons for the emphasis on the court are twofold: firstly, because as in most premodern Islamic (and non-Islamic) polities the court was the focus of political, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles art- istic and cultural life; and secondly, because notwithstanding that fact, it has received very little attention in the medieval Anatolian context – and indeed, has been surprisingly neglected in studies of Middle Eastern and Islamic history to date. 21 It would be instruct- ive to say a few words about the internal dynamics and make-up of the Anatolian Seljuk court,
but the dearth of critical studies on the subject is paralleled by the absence of even a single modern Turkish word conveying the broad meaning of ‘court’ as a social and cultural world. The closest word in modern Turkish to court is saray , which strictly means palace; indeed, the Seljuk court in modern Turkish historiography has been conceptualised as a palace complex and ts institutions rendered most commonly as the s aray te s Ç kilatı , ‘the apparatus of the palace’. 22 I f one turns to contemporary record, one does not find a single comprehensive term for court, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles
but rather a variety of related words. Ibn Bı 3 b ı 3 commonly uses ba 3r ga 3h and darga 3h to refer to the ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ courts of what could be considered an imperial complex. Thus, the European court, with its inner chamber and outer hall dis- tinction, is clearly paralleled in the inner and outer courts of the Seljuk royal complex, which may be also compared to the inner and outer court in the Ottoman context (e nder u n 3 and bir u n3 ) , and the inner and outer court in the imperial Chinese context.2 3 Palace complexes were generally divided into secluded inner areas and zones of wider presence. It is these two spheres which come into interaction to form the court.
The court structure of b a r3 g a h 3 and darg a h 3 appears applic- able to urban palace complexes located within the citadel of the main Seljuk centres of Konya, Kayseri and Alanya (Al a 3 ’ iyya). Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 19 English Subtitles